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Minnesota Biodiversity Atlas

Bell Museum

Authors: Anita Cholewa
Less Details
Locality: Minnesota
Abstract:

A comprehensive, annotated list of the vascular plants known, or reported, to occur in
Minnesota (native, naturalized, and adventive species).

Family delineations are based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group arrangement (Bot. J.
Linnean Soc. 141: 399-436, 2003) and species names are based on published volumes of the Flora
of North America (FNA), recent journals for changes post FNA (if widely accepted by the major
taxonomic indices), and Gleason and Cronquist 1991 for others. Although not all taxonomists
may agree with FNA, a wide array of experts from many areas have been consulted and this
consequently represents the most up-to-date understanding of our flora.

Common names as given in the USDA-NRCS Plants database (2008) are also provided,
followed by other common names widely used, and by Indian names where known.

County-level distribution maps are available at www.bonap.org


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Families: 158
Genera: 806
Species: 2647 (species rank)
Total Taxa: 2832 (including subsp. and var.)

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Ruellia humilis Nuttall - fringeleaf wild petunia
reported for Minnesota (Washington Co.) by MN-DNR but no specimens at MIN; known from NE, IA, WI, south- and eastward; special concern
root extract reportedly repels some insects
native to Europe; sterile polyploid species
Viburnum acerifolium L. - mapleleaf viburnum
erroneous report
Viburnum lantana L. - wayfaring tree
native to Eurasia
Viburnum lentago L. - nannyberry
Viburnum opulus var. americanum Aiton - American cranberrybush
Viburnum opulus var. opulus - European cranberrybush
native to Eurasia
Alisma gramineum Lej. - narrowleaf water plantain
Alisma subcordatum Rafinesque - American water plantain
Alisma triviale Pursh - northern water plantain
Sagittaria cristata Engelmann - crested arrowhead
Sagittaria cuneata E. Sheldon - arumleaf arrowhead
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Ontario, WI, IA
Sagittaria latifolia Willdenow - broadleaf arrowhead
corms are edible
Sagittaria rigida Pursh - sessilefruit arrowhead
Allium cernuum Roth - nodding onion
Allium hollandicum R.M. Fritsch - purple sensation onion
hybrid ornamental rarely escaping; known only from St. Louis Co. (one roadside population, collected 2005);
vars. not recognized; endangered
Amaranthus albus L. - prostrate pigweed
native to Eurasia; often confused with A. blitoides
considered native to the central US by FNA; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1886, Winona Co.
Amaranthus caudatus L. - love-lies-bleeding
report unverified
misapplied to North American flora, see A. albus or A. blitoides; misapplied name
Amaranthus hybridus L. - slim amaranth
native to eastern US; highly variable and often confused with A. powellii or A. retroflexus;
Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. - Prince-of-Wales feather
native to southwestern US; adventive near cultivated fields but unlikely to be persisting;
native to southern North America
Amaranthus powellii S. Watson - Powell's amaranth
native to southwestern US; often hybridizes with A. hybridus
native to subtropical America; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1880, Wabasha Co.; highly variable and poisonous to livestock
Amaranthus spinosus L. - spiny amaranth
native to tropical America; reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN
Atriplex argentea var. argentea - silverscale saltbush
expected in Minnesota
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Manitoba, ND, SD on saline soils
erroneous report
Atriplex heterosperma Bunge - twoscale saltbush
western species reported for Minnesota by the Atlas of the Great Plains but no specimens at MIN
Atriplex hortensis L. - garden orach
native to Asia; known only from Pipestone Co. (one urban population, collected 1925)
Atriplex patula L. - spear saltbush
native to the Mediterranean region
native to Eurasia
Axyris amaranthoides L. - Russian pigweed
native to Siberia
native to Europe; known only from Roseau Co. (one riverside population, collected 1939) but doubtfully persisting
Chenopodium album L. - lamb’s-quarters
native to western US; known only from Wabasha Co. (collected 1983)
Chenopodium foggii Wahl - Fogg’s goosefoot
eastern species erroneously reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS; probably misidentified C. standleyanum or C. pratericola; erroneous record
often confused with C. pratericola
Chenopodium standleyanum Aellen - Standley's goosefoot
Chenopodium strictum Roth - lateflowering goosefoot
known only from Mille Lacs Co. (collected 1892); native and introduced forms exist but are difficult to distinguish
Chenopodium urbicum L. - city goosefoot
reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN
misapplied to our flora, see C. americanum; misapplied name
misapplied to our flora, see C. villosum; misapplied name
Corispermum pallasii Steven - Siberian bugseed
to be expected in the far southeast corner (known from IA, WI), on drying river beds and lake bottoms
native to Eurasia
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1932 in both Dakota and Hennepin counties
eastern limit of distribution; threatened
Salsola collina Pallas - slender Russian thistle
native to Siberia
Salsola kali L. - prickly Russian-thistle
misapplied to our flora, see S. tragus
Salsola tragus L. - prickly Russian-thistle
native to Eurasia; state DOA listed weed, 1st collected 1890, Hennepin Co.
native to eastern and southern US
Rhus glabra L. - northern smooth sumac
Rhus typhina L. - staghorn sumac
Rhus x borealis Greene - northern smooth
(R. glabra x typhina)
Rhus x pulvinata Greene - northern smooth sumac
uncertain status; see Rhus glabra
state DOA noxious weed; can cause severe skin irritation
state DOA noxious weed; can cause severe skin irritation
can cause severe skin irritation
Aegopodium podagraria L. - bishop's goutweed
native to Eurasia; known to be an aggressive invader in other regions
Aethusa cynapium L. - fool’s parsley
native to Eurasia
native to southern Europe
Angelica atropurpurea L. - purplestem angelica
reported for Minnesota by Gleason & Cronquist 1991 but no specimens at MIN; known from MO, IL, MI in dry woods
native to Europe
Berula erecta (W. Hudson) Coville - cutleaf waterparsnip
Carum carvi L. - caraway
native to Eurasia
Cicuta bulbifera L. - bulblet-bearing water hemlock
Cicuta maculata var. maculata - spotted water hemlock
one of the deadliest poisonous plants in the US, to humans and animals
reported for Minnesota by Gleason & Cronquist 1991 but no specimens at MIN; known from Ontario, WI, IA in wet meadows and swamps
Conium maculatum L. - poison hemlock
native to Eurasia; plants deadly poisonous to humans and animals (the poison of Socrates); first collected 1992
Cymopterus acaulis var. acaulis - plains springparsley
eastern limit of distribution; known only from Clay Co. (one roadside population, collected 1960)
Daucus carota L. - Queen Anne’s lace
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1916, Ramsey Co.
Heracleum maximum W. Bartram - common cow-parsnip
native to Mediterranean region; reported for Minnesota as a garden escape by UDSA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN
Lomatium orientale J.M. Coulter & Rose - northern Idaho biscuitroot
Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC. - Java waterdropwort
native to Europe
known only from Cook Co. (last collected 2003); special concern
Pastinaca sativa L. - wild parsnip
native to Eurasia; can cause severe skin irritation
Pimpinella saxifraga L. - solidstem burnet saxifrage
native to Eurasia; known only from Pine Co. (one field population, collected 1982)
Polytaenia nuttallii de Candolle - Nuttall's prairie parsley
known only from Fillmore Co. (last collected 1915); special concern
Sanicula canadensis var. canadensis - Canadian black snakeroot
Sanicula canadensis var. grandis Fernald - Canadian black snakeroot
Sanicula gregaria E.P. Bicknell - clustered black snakeroot
Sanicula marilandica L. - Maryland black snakeroot
Sanicula odorata (Raf.) Pryer & Phillippe - clustered black snakeroot
Sanicula trifoliata E.P. Bicknell - largefruit black snakeroot
Sium carsonii Durand ex A. Gray - Carson’s waterparsnip
erroneous report
Sium suave Walter - hemlock waterparsnip
native to southern Great Plains; known only from Fillmore Co. (one trailside population, collected 1994) but doubtfully persisting
Thaspium barbinode (Michaux) Nuttall - hairyjoint meadow parsnip
reported for Minnesota by Gleason & Cronquist 1991 but no specimens at MIN; known from Ontario, WI, IL
Torilis japonica de Candolle - erect hedge parsley
native to Eurasia and northern Africa; known only from Ramsey Co. (one park population, collected 2009)
Apocynum androsaemifolium L. - spreading dogbane
plants poisonous
plants poisonous
included in A. cannabinum by some
Apocynum x floribundum Greene - intermediate dogbane
(A. androsaemifolium x cannabinum)
Asclepias exaltata L. - poke milkweed
northern limit of distribution; known only from Mower Co. (one population, collected 1982); threatened
Asclepias lanuginosa Nuttall - sidecluster milkweed
Asclepias purpurascens L. - purple milkweed
known only from Wabasha Co. (historical collection from 1883); rare historic record
Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. - fourleaf milkweed
reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN; known from IA, IL in dry woods
Asclepias speciosa Torrey - showy milkweed
Asclepias stenophylla A. Gray - slimleaf milkweed
northern limit of distribution; threatened
Asclepias syriaca L. - common milkweed
state DOA noxious (CN) weed
Asclepias verticillata L. - whorled milkweed
Asclepias viridiflora Rafinesque - green comet milkweed
Vinca minor L. - common periwinkle
native to southern Europe; occasionally escaping from cultivation and persisting but no specimens at MIN
native to Europe; known only from Ramsey Co. (last collected 1997)
Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray - common winterberry
may cause skin irritation, contains calcium-oxalate crystals; special concern
Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott - jack in the pulpit
may cause skin irritation, contains calcium-oxalate crystals; subspp. not formally recognized by FNA since numerous intermediate forms exist with much overlap in character expression
Calla palustris L. - water arum
may cause skin irritation, contains calcium-oxalate crystals
Lemna minor L. - common duckweed
most of our specimens were misidentified and instead are L. turionifera
northern limit of distribution known only from Washington Co. (one population, collected 1988); DNR watch list
Lemna perpusilla Torrey - minute duckweed
Lemna trisulca L. - ivy leaf duckweed
Lemna turionifera Landolt - turion duckweed
disjunct from central Great Lakes region; known only from Cook Co. (one population, collected 1995)
Pistia stratiotes L. - water lettuce
native to tropics; known only from Winona Co. (collected 2000), doubtfully persisting
may cause skin irritation, contains calcium-oxalate crystals; roots toxic
Wolffia braziliensis Weddell - northern watermeal
misapplied; see Wolffia borealis
Wolffia columbiana H. Karsten - Columbian watermeal
Wolffia punctata Griseb. - northern watermeal
misapplied to our flora, see W. borealis
Aralia hispida Ventenant - bristly sarsaparilla
Aralia nudicaulis L. - wild sarsaparilla
Hydrocotyle americana L. - American marsh pennywort
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. - floating marsh pennywort
possibly introduced, disjunct from eastern OH and TN; known only from Scott Co. (Shakopee-Mdewakanton tribal lands, collected 2007)
Hydrocotyle umbellata L. - many-flower marsh pennywort
reported for Minnesota by Gleason & Cronquist 1991 but no specimens at MIN; known from MI, IL
Panax quinquefolius L. - American ginseng
Panax trifolius L. - dwarf ginseng
Asarum canadense L. - Canadian wildginger
Asparagus officinalis L. - common asparagus
native to Eurasia and north Africa, but evidence suggests that American Indians traded this in pre-European times
Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. - common grape hyacinth
native to Europe; reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN
Achillea alpina L. - Chinese yarrow
southern limit of distribution; known only from Roseau Co. (last collected 1983); threatened
Achillea millefolium L. - common yarrow
both native and introduced forms exist but are not distinguishable except on a molecular level; although much morphological variability occurs subsp. and vars. not recognized, the differences are not considered taxonomically important
Achillea nobilis L. - noble yarrow
native to Europe; apparantly introduced with wildlife planting
Achillea ptarmica L. - sneezeweed yarrow
native to Eurasia
native to Asia; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, known only from Lac Qui Parle Co. (one crop field population, collected 1981)
Adenocaulon bicolor Hook. - American trailplant
erroneous report
roots and leaves toxic to humans, deadly poisonous to livestock
erroneous report
Agoseris x agrestis - pale agoseris
erroneous report
Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hooker - flatspine burr ragweed
native to western US, known only from Hennepin Co. (historical collections to 1896)
state DOA noxious (CN) weed; pollen causes allergies
Ambrosia bidentata Michaux - lanceleaf ragweed
known only from Ramsey Co. (one gravel pit population, collected 1914)
Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt. - skeleton-leaf burr ragweed
to be expected on disturbed wet clays or sands (known from ND, SD, IA, WI)
Ambrosia trifida L. - great ragweed
state DOA noxious (CN) weed; pollen causes allergies
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Ontario, WI, SD and westward
Antennaria microphylla Rydberg - littleleaf pussytoes
Antennaria neglecta Greene - field pussytoes
known only from Chisago Co. (red-cedar glades; collected 1990)
Antennaria parvifolia Nuttall - small-leaf pussytoes
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Ontario, Manitoba, ND
Anthemis cotula L. - stinking chamomile
native to Eurasia; pollen may cause allergies
Arctium lappa L. - greater burdock
native to Eurasia; reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1877, Hennepin Co.
Arctium tomentosum Miller - woolly burdock
native to Eurasia; known only from Kittson Co. (last collected 1958)
Arnica lonchophylla Greene - longleaf arnica
southern limit of distribution; vars. Not recognized; threatened
erroneous report
Arnoglossum plantagineum Rafinesque - groovestem Indian plantain
northern limit of distribution; threatened
Artemisia abrotanum L. - southernwood
native to Eurasia and north Africa
native to Europe; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1892, Otter Tail Co.; pollen may cause allergies
Artemisia annua L. - annual wormwood
erroneous report
Artemisia biennis Willdenow - biennial wormwood
native to northwestern US
misapplied to the regional flora, see subsp. caudata; misapplied name
Artemisia cana subsp. cana - silver sagebrush
report unverified
Artemisia frigida Willdenow - prairie sagewort
Artemisia longifolia Nuttall - longleaf wormwood
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Manitoba, ND, SD on alkaline soils
pollen may cause allergies
Artemisia pontica L. - Roman wormwood
native to Eurasia; known only from Isanti Co. (one old homestead population, collected 1963)
Artemisia serrata - sawtooth wormwood
native to eastern Asia; known only from St. Louis Co. (Duluth area; last collected 2009)
Artemisia vulgaris L. - common wormwood
native to Eurasia
Bellis perennis L. - lawndaisy
native to Eurasia and Pacific Islands, occasional escape from gardens
Bidens aristosa Britton - bearded beggarticks
report unverified
Bidens beckii Torrey ex Sprengel - Beck's water-marigold
Bidens cernua L. - nodding beggartick
Bidens discoidea Britton - small beggarticks
Bidens frondosa L. - devil’s beggartick
Bidens tripartita L. - threelobe beggarticks
Bidens vulgata Greene - big devils beggartick
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious weed, 1st collected 1949, Becker & Rock counties
Carduus crispus L. - curly plumeless thistle
native to Eurasia; reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN
Carduus nutans L. - nodding plumeless thistle
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious weed, 1st collected 1939, Goodhue Co.
Centaurea cyanus L. - garden cornflower
native to Mediterranean region
Centaurea diffusa Lam. - diffuse knapweed
Centaurea jacea L. - brownray knapweed
native to Europe; known only from St. Louis Co. (one roadside population, collected 1953)
Centaurea montana L. - perennial cornflower
native to montane Europe; known only from St. Louis Co. (Duluth area; one population, collected 1952), doubtfully persisting
erroneous report
Centaurea phrygia L. - wig knapweed
native to Europe; known only from St. Louis Co. (last collected 2006)
Centaurea solstitialis L. - yellow star-thistle
native to southern Europe; reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from all surrounding states and provinces
native to Europe; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1918, Dakota Co.
(C. jacea x nigra x nigrescens); native to Europe; known only from St. Louis Co. (last collected 2006)
misapplied name; see Heterotheca stenophylla
native to Eurasia
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious weed, 1st collected 1878, Hennepin Co.; vars. not recognized
Cirsium muticum Michaux - swamp thistle
native to Eurasia; reported for Minnesota (Houston Co.) by U.S. Forest Service but no specimens at MIN
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; easily confused with C. flodmanii
native to Eurasia; state DOA noxious weed, 1st collected 1883, Wabasha Co.
(C. altissimum x discolor); progeny of this hybrid have low fertility but occur in stable populations; FNA recognizes this taxon but recommends further genetic study before a proper classification can be made
vars. not recognized
Coreopsis lanceolata L. - lanceleaf tickseed
native to eastern US
Coreopsis palmata Nuttall - stiff tickseed
Coreopsis tinctoria Nuttall - golden tickseed
native to southern US; vars. not recognized
native to Mexico and southwestern U.S.; reported as naturalized for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN
native to Mexico; known only from Olmsted Co. (collected 1994), apparently introduced as part of prairie planting but doubtfully persisting
native to Eurasia
native to Europe; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, but not known from Minnesota
Crepis runcinata subsp. runcinata - fiddleleaf hawksbeard
Crepis tectorum L. - narrowleaf hawksbeard
native to Europe; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1934, Becker Co.
state DOA noxious (CN) weed
Echinacea angustifolia de Candolle - narrow leaved purple coneflower
Echinacea pallida (Nuttall) Nuttall - pale purple coneflower
Echinops exaltatus Schrader - tall globethistle
native to Siberia; known only from St. Louis Co. (one population from former agricultural test plots, collected 2004)
Echinops sphaerocephalus - great globethistle
native to Eurasia; reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN
known only from Washington Co. (one riverside population, collected 1976), probably introduced from further east
Erigeron acris L. - bitter fleabane
Erigeron annuus (Linnaeus) Persoon - eastern daisy fleabane
Erigeron lonchophyllus Hooker - shortray fleabane
endemic to Minnesota; DNR watch list
Eupatorium perfoliatum L. - common boneset
vars. not recognized
Eupatorium serotinum Michaux - lateflowering throughwort
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from WI, IA, NE
northwest limit of distribution; threatened
vars. not recognized
known only from Cook Co. (last collected 1945); rare historic record
Eutrochium purpureum (L.) E.E. Lamont - sweet scented joe pye weed
Eutrochium purpureum var. purpureum - sweetscented joe pye weed
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from WI, IA, NE
Gaillardia aristata Pursh - common gaillardia
native to southern US
native from southwestern US to South America
native from Central America to South America
Gnaphalium uliginosum L. - marsh cudweed
native to Europe
state DOA noxious (CN) weed; vars. not recognized
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Manitoba, ND, SD on rocky soils
Hasteola suaveolens (L.) Pojarkova - false Indian plantain
northwest limit of distribution; endangered
Helenium autumnale L. - common sneezeweed
poisonous to cattle; vars. not recognized
Helenium flexuosum Rafinesque - purplehead sneezeweed
native to eastern US; known only from Carlton Co. (one swampy roadside population, collected 1944)
Helianthus annuus L. - common sunflower
state DOA noxious (CN) weed, named cultivars exempt
Helianthus giganteus L. - giant sunflower
Helianthus maximiliani Schrader - Maximilian's sunflower
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from IA, IL
Helianthus strumosus L. - paleleaf woodland sunflower
Helianthus tuberosus L. - Jerusalem artichoke
state DOA noxious (CN) weed
(H. pauciflorus x tuberosus)
known only from Pipestone Co. (collected 1963)
known only from Traverse Co. (collected 1938)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa - hairy false goldenaster
Hieracium aurantiacum L. - orange hawkweed
native to Europe; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1947, St. Louis Co.
native to Europe
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from MI, IN, IL, MO
Hieracium pilosella L. - mouse-ear hawkweed
native to Europe
native to Europe
Hieracium scabrum Michaux - rough hawkweed
Hieracium umbellatum L. - narrowleaf hawkweed
Hieracium vulgatum Fries - common hawkweed
native to Europe; correct name for this taxon is in some doubt fide FNA
(H. scabrum x umbellatum); reported for Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN; FNA makes no mention of this hybrid
(H. caespitosum x lactucella); native to Europe
Inula britannica L. - British yellowhead
native to Europe; known only from Dakota Co. (nursery holding area, collected 2004)
Inula helenium L. - elecampane
native to Europe
Ionactis linariifolia (L.) Greene - flaxleaf whitetop aster
report unverified
Iva annua L. - annual marsh elder
to be expected on moist disturbed sites; known from ND, SD, IA, WI
Iva axillaris Pursh - povertyweed
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from WI, Manitoba, ND, SD on wet saline soils
Krigia biflora (Walter) S.F. Blake - twoflower dwarfdandelion
Krigia virginica (L.) Willdenow - Virginia dwarfdandelion
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from WI, IL, IA
Lactuca canadensis L. - Canada lettuce
erroneous report
Lactuca serriola L. - prickly lettuce
native to Europe; toxic to livestock
Lapsana communis L. - comon nipplewort
native to Eurasia
Leontodon autumnalis L. - fall dandelion
native to Eurasia; known only from St. Louis Co. (one turf-planting population, collected 1995); vars. not recognized
native to eastern Europe
misapplied to US flora (except CA), see L. serotina
native to Europe; state DOA noxious (CN) weed, 1st collected 1878, Hennepin Co.
Liatris aspera Michaux - tall blazing star
Liatris cylindracea Michaux - Ontario blazing star
Liatris ligulistylis (A. Nelson) K. Schumann - Rocky Mountain blazing star
Liatris punctata var. punctata - dotted blazing star
report unverified
(L. aspera x pycnostachya); reported as endemic to Minnesota by USDA-NRCS but no specimens at MIN
Liatris x spheroidea Michaux - spherical blazing star
(L. aspera x ligulistylis); known only from Marshall Co. (collected 1900)
Logfia arvensis (L.) Holub - field cottonrose
native to Eurasia and northwest Africa; known only from St. Louis Co. (last collected 2006)
Madia glomerata Hooker - mountain tarweed
native to western US
Matricaria chamomilla L. - German chamomile
native to Eurasia; pollen causes allergies
native to northwestern US
Matricaria maritima L. - scentless false mayweed
misapplied; see Tripleurospermum inodorum
misapplied; see M. discoidea
native to Europe; reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN
Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene - prairie false dandelion
native to Eurasia; known only from Pipestone Co. (one population, collected 1954), doubtfully persisting
leaves and roots possibly toxic to humans, deadly poisonous to horses and cattle
southeast limit of distribution; known only from Polk Co. (last collected 1993); endangered
disjunct from western North America and northern Canada; only known specimens at DUL
leaves and roots possibly toxic to humans, deadly poisonous to horses and cattle
northwest limit of distribution; endangered
Polymnia canadensis L. - whiteflower leafcup
Prenanthes alba L. - white rattlesnakeroot
Prenanthes aspera Michaux - rough rattlesnakeroot
Prenanthes crepidinea Michaux - nodding rattlesnakeroot
known only from Houston Co. (collected 1900); rare historic record
Prenanthes racemosa Michaux - purple rattlesnakeroot
vars./subsp. not recognized
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from WI, MI
misapplied to the regional flora, see P. macounii
Ratibida pinnata (Ventenat) Barnhart - pinnate prairie coneflower
Rudbeckia subtomentosa Pursh - sweet coneflower
possibly introduced or possibly a range extension from southern IA and WI; known only from Mower Co. (one railroad population, collected 2001); DNR watch list
to be expected in far northeast corner (known from adjacent Ontario), on grassy, rocky outcroppings and cliffs
leaves and roots possibly toxic
Senecio viscosus L. - sticky ragwort
native to Eurasia; known only from St. Louis Co. (Duluth area; last collected 2006)
Senecio vulgaris L. - old-man-in-the-spring
native to Eurasia; leaves and roots possibly toxic to humans, deadly poisonous to horses and cattle
eastern limit of distribution; threatened
possibly to be expected along southern border (known from SD, IA, WI), in road/railside prairies
Silphium laciniatum L. - compass plant
misapplied to our flora, see S. canadensis or possibly S. altissima
Solidago flexicaulis L. - zigzag goldenrod
Solidago gigantea Aiton - giant goldenrod
vars. not recognized
Solidago jejunifolia Steele - showy goldenrod
Solidago juncea Aiton - early goldenrod
Solidago missouriensis Nutt. - Missouri goldenrod
vars. not recognized
Solidago mollis Bartling - velvety goldenrod
Solidago riddellii Frank - Riddell’s goldenrod
Solidago rigida L. - stiff goldenrod
Solidago sciaphila E.S. Steele - shadowy goldenrod
Solidago simplex var. simplex - Mt. Albert goldenrod
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from Ontario, Manitoba, ND, SD in rocky seepages
Solidago x bernardii B. Boivin - yellow stiff-aster
(S. ptarmicoides x riddellii)
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill - spiny sowthistle
native to Mediterranean region
Sonchus oleraceus L. - common sowthistle
native to Europe
native to western US, Canada, and Siberia
Symphyotrichum cordifolium - common blue wood aster
known only from Wilkin Co. (one prairie population, collected 1981)
report unverified
known only from type specimen (as A. laeviformis) collected at Lake Benton, Lincoln Co., 1891; rare historic record
reported for Minnesota by FNA but no specimens at MIN; known from adjacent states and provinces
native to far eastern US; known only from Lake Co. (one population, collected 1952, consists of single poor specimen)
vars. not recognized
erroneous report
Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willdenow) G.L. Nesom - hairy white old field aster
Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum - hairy white oldfield aster
known only from Winona Co. (one park population, collected 1914)
several varieties have been proposed but more work is needed to establish their validity
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